Pure tube, no op amps in a DAC that has a transport for CD playing as well. With a fully balanced circuit and six tubes in the signal path, this player will bring definition in clarity without any loss of smoothness. Transparency and air without any sacrifice of richness. Parts are of first grade quality and we have taken the worry out of chip obsolescence; should we upgrade the chips, it will be just a matter of changing the board. Time to see what tubes and a Hi-performance circuit will have on your digital music.